GeoNetwork opensource provides Internet access to interactive maps, satellite imagery Date type, Publication: Date identifies when the resource was issued. book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher purchases. Data has recently been obtained from online platforms such as Anhalt, Saxony, Mecklenburg Western Pomerania and Brandenburg had high economic growth (Katasteramt). In addition to the. Internet: www. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany dating from is called onal detail (e.g. Bavaria, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt).
At the beginning of the s, Eduard Imhof visualized statistical data with a georeferenced point basis in grid nets using the cartogram method.
From the current viewpoint, it requires only a small step more to calculate a cartogram with high resolution into one with lower resolution. Therefore, several levels of grid nets can be calculated and visualized in varying resolution Tramsen Wellestablished methods in the field of Geoinformatics exist to solve the problem of varying resolution.
These methods are based on appropriate data structures. For example, some approaches focus on data compression e. A well-known scientific 6 56 Vol. InJosef Strobl Strobl63 7 published a relevant article dealing with census data and data protection requirements in Austria.
The article presents a quadtree approach as a solution for the visualization of census data. Statistik Austria switched over from storage of census data to a more general relationship to address coordinates in Prinz et al. Consequently, statistical data can now be aggregated for square grid cells of various sizes. Researchers are now able to compile data for studies of small areas, regions or all of Austria.
Data for grid cells can be combined or subdivided arbitrarily Wonka et al. The author s critical view Strobl63 7 deals with person-related data protection, which appears at the fusion of address with spatial reference Geo-referencing. Strobl criticizes common GIS software for not implementing quadtree algorithms or other hierarchical data models.
The technical term in German is more or less similar to a grid with varying cell sizes Strobl: Ingrid Kaminger Statistik Austria is of the same opinion that this method is easy to automate and gives an overview of the complete data set in contrast to strategies of data blocking.
Kaminger criticizes that a grid cell R could be hidden by an aggregated grid cell R2 that falls below the threshold even if the grid cell R itself does not fall below the threshold Kaminger and Meyer3.
Flugbegleiter lufthansa bewerbung
Werner Meyer of the Federal Office for Statistics, Switzerland presents another specific term for visualizations based on the quadtree principle in German Mischrasterkarte. He is also of the opinion that these maps are very useful to present statistical data on a small scale in consideration of data protection aspects Kaminger and Meyer4. Furthermore, he discusses interpolation difficulties in the area statistics of Switzerland Meyer 20.
Therefore, he recommends the use of grid maps with varying cell sizes as a master map. In his view, these maps should offer locally precise information. Additionally, an interpolated map e.
- Additional Hotels:
- Gematrie Tabelle
- Ask a Question
He argues that some patterns are not easy to compare with real world phenomena Kaminger and Meyer7. The technique is based on hierarchical spatial data structures, in particular the region quadtree and the hexagon or rhombus HoR quadtree. The region quadtree provides a potential approach for the dissemination of aggregated census data and standardization of spatial units, thus reducing subjectivity. The quadtree is suitable for the given representation problem.
It is based on the principle of recursive decomposition of 2D or 3D space Samet. This space is filled with data that can be in the form of points, regions, curves, surfaces, or volumes.
There are different kinds of quadtree approaches that can be separated accordingly:. By the data type they represent e. By the principle of space decomposition: Space can be divided into equal size quadrants on each decomposition level e. By the resolution or depth of space decomposition: It can be set manually divide x-times or divide until a count threshold of data objects per space structure is reached or it automatically takes the objects in consideration divide space until each data object is considered Samet2.
The desire to keep a high resolution of data e. For this work see section 6the hierarchical structure of the region quadtree was applied. In contrast to the typical region quadtree the presented approach begins with the grid of the highest resolution bottomup-principle. After a spatial join with that grid, the cells have the object count. Figure 2 shows an example consisting of a test area with point objects. As the 7 M. Using quadtree representations in building stock visualization and analysis 57 Spatial Join f 0 g j k 2 h i 0 l 0 m n o r 0 s p q t 2 u b d c e Quadtree Aggregation a Example Quadtree Structure a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Used Threshold: The bottom-up principle based on the region quadtree at the conceptual level own contribution 8 58 Vol.
The relationship between the quadtree representation, with its sub-divided cells, can be also shown as links and nodes in a directed tree, with each link being directed from the parent node towards its children sub-quadrants.
After choosing, testing, and evaluating the approach, the integration and automation into a geographic information system GIS was the next step.
In GIS-Software quadtree approaches are mostly available as a secondary structure spatial index but seldom as a primary data structure e. ArcGIS was used for the implementation of an automated quadtree solution.
INSPIRE will establish a European Union EU wide spatial data infrastructure and spatial data harmonization with the background of environmental policies that should be implemented completely by Examples of some common INSPIRE principles are efficiency in collecting and maintaining data, combining and sharing spatial information from different countries of the EU, and a prompt and transparent availability of geographic information.
Different implementing rules are adopted to ensure that the spatial data infrastructure between the Member States is compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context. One of these implementing rules is the data specification for different themes like the Specification on Geographical Grid Systems grids. Grids in general are characterized by a number of n x m cells spanned by two axes. The shape of the grid cells is usually quadrilateral although hexagons are also possible.
The usage of grids makes it possible to store spatial information with indirect positioning. As a result, they are very useful for the harmonization and reduction of complexity of spatial data as average values of qualitative datasets can be stored in grid cells. The grid, which is specified by INSPIRE, should be used for themes where equal-area grid cells are required with a fixed and ambiguous position. It should be used for statistical reporting and spatial analysis purposes.
The grid is based on the ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area coordinate reference system and is defined by hierarchical resolutions of m, 0 m, 00 m, m, m, and m. It is a challenge to determine the total number of buildings in most countries of the world and, in particular, in Germany Behnisch 20, 88 The main reason is the lack of appropriate official statistics dealing with all types of buildings.
On average, the housing component is well-known due to political interest in social housing. In Germany, many institutions record building data from different perspectives. Collection of data is complicated, often expensive, and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of buildings is difficult to achieve, due to their structural i.
To be able to use building data for quadtree representations, it is necessary to initially give them a spatial reference. Recently, the official building polygons ZSHH 20 offer such a possibility. The only attribute per building is the key attribute AGS in German: The official building polygons allow easy combinations with other statistical data, as well as visualization and analysis on a finer level.
To improve the quality of the dataset and the information content of the buildings some changes were made by the researchers. The applied procedure to handle the amount of buildings in Germany and, in particular, the study area can be described as follows. In one case, the building footprint data 9 M. Using quadtree representations in building stock visualization and analysis 59 of one Federal State were not complete.
Georeferenzierte Adressdaten Bund to be consistent. In addition, all buildings were allocated to a specific land use class.
Depending on the building location and the ATKIS land use class, the buildings were classified as follows: In addition, some other attributes were given e. That will increase the usability of the dataset.
All grid representations are based on building s center points. These points are generated from the optimized building polygons.
The optimized dataset contains nearly 50 Mio. A majority of the buildings are located in Nordrhein-Westfalen containing the Ruhrgebietwhile the Federal State of Bremen has the lowest amount of buildings. The conurbations in Germany are easily seen. The number of buildings per grid cell is presented for two selected land use classes in two quantile maps.
These maps display a distribution so each clas- Vol. Using quadtree representations in building stock visualization and analysis scale. An automated solution was realized to demonstrate the quadtree representation in the framework of building stock visualization and analysis using the example of the Hamburg conurbation.
Figure 5 gives insight into specific characteristics of the selected study area.Fangjagd - Trappenschutz in Sachsen-Anhalt
Continental waters, forest, and vegetation, as well as the grid of the aggregation procedure red line are presented. The determination of thresholds for the number of buildings per grid cell is based on Statistik Austria, as previously mentioned in section 2.
According to Statistik Austria, the threshold demands more than three buildings within a grid cell of m x m. Hamburg itself is a dense area where a large amount of buildings is locatedProminent locations including the harbour, the riv- Fig.
Characteristics of the conurbation Hamburg e. Regions with many buildings are represented using small grid cell sizes, while regions with just a few buildings are represented using larger grid cell sizes. In particular the outskirts of the city form a contrast to the core area of the city. The cartogram representation is carried out using six classes, which are growing progressively. A graded scale of three colors, from yellow to orange followed by brown visualizes the classes.
The higher the building density, the darker the color. Grid cells with no building count 0 buildings per grid cell are shown in a neutral grey without grid lines. The map scale is approx. The projection was carried out using the Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection with the origin at 52 north and 0 east.
The description of coordinates has a false easting of 4,32, m and false northing of 3,20, m. The geodetic reference frame is ETRS Using quadtree representations in building stock visualization and analysis 63 7 Discussion validation and perspectives for future work In view of statistical information, official maps in Germany are usually based on administrative units such as districts or communities.
With this in mind, a grid map on a small scale based on a region quadtree was investigated. The approach should prove to motivate the implementation of hierarchic data structures in order to handle aspects of data protection. The choice of a threshold for cell aggregation explicitly determines how much details will be generalized aggregated. Additionally, the scale of the map has an influence on the information density.
The number of classes and their separation with a graded scale of colors is also a decisive factor for the perception of the presented content. The resolution of grid cells excessively limits the map scale to be displayed. The final map was created automatically based on a m grid.
The presented approach is only usable under certain conditions. At first, the number of rows and columns of the grid must be the same. Secondly, the aggregation procedure demands a number of rows and columns as follows: Thirdly, the rows and columns must be continuous. All of these conditions are a strict requirement for the application of the procedure. In other cases see section 3it is possible to create quadtree representations in a non-automatic manner. In this case the procedure is based on pre-calculated maps for every aggregation level.
In the future, the presented aggregation process needs further optimization, e. The flexibility of the aggregation process correlates with the amount of local information loss. The advantage of the quadtree approach is to form a basis for an accurate depiction of total buildings for the settlement areas on a small scale; so later on other statistical data can be easily stored directly into the matrix representation of the corresponding quadtree as depicted in figure 7.
Each cell, aggregated or not, has an explicit identifier that ensures the connection of data to the database. The proposed spatial grid has a potential for further analysis and visualization. In general, grid data have great potential for cross-border studies and for studies or indicators where the data are heavily dependent on the spatial entity they relate to. Grid data form a good basis for small area estimations concerning variables that do not have primary data by detailed georeferences.
The temporal aspect is also of specific interest as grids offer comparable descriptions over long periods. Previously, the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning investigated the changes of settlement structures in German agglomeration areas over a period of 0 to 20 years with a focus on the s Siedentop et al.
The agglomeration areas were defined by a 60 km buffer around the boundaries of 44 central cities. This wide spatial scope allowed the examination of development patterns of the inner ring high density suburbs, as well as of outer ring suburbs and rural areas at the fringe of the urbanized area. Applying the quadtree approach to selected German agglomerations gives the chance of a comparison within the scope of future work. It is expected that there is a recurring generation of spatial patterns caused by airports, highways, large recreation areas, or other natural features.
Furthermore, the knowledge in Germany about selected threshold values will increase and the exploration of quadtree results forms a good basis to elaborate requirements for future data protection guidelines. A nationwide comparison will discover spatial characteristics on a small scale and leads to further content based interpretations in combination with other data.
It is possible to quantify the amount of cells, which might be critical in the context of data protection aspects. Data mining and knowledge discovery Miller and Han2 are appropriate techniques for advanced geospatial research and further representations regarding data protection aspects e. The conversion of sub-symbolic patterns and trends in data to a symbolic form is realized as the most difficult and critical part of geo-data analysis Behnisch and Ultsch This tool is based on knowledge discovery in data- 14 64 Vol.
Different density visualizations quadtree vs. Applying other analytical methods for sensitive data is also of scientific interest, including point pattern analysis, interpolation, spatial autocorrelation, etc. Furthermore interpolated maps Kriging with different adjustments could be derived from the quadtree representation center point of the grid cells. According to K aminger and M eyerthis will ease the interpretability of the grid. The quadtree representation is also suitable for the application of Multi Criteria Evaluations or as a basis for the simulation of temporal development scenarios Strobl In particular, a map with varying cell size is presented for the Hamburg conurbation.
Quadtree representations are useful to provide building data management, as well as discussing the importance of determining an accurate depiction of the total buildings necessary for the settlement areas in order to develop an improved denominator which would enable the calculation of more accurate rates in GIS analyses involving, e.
Using quadtree representations in building stock visualization and analysis 65 Data protection aspects could be implied through levels of detail generated by the structure. The more a structure is subdivided the more detail or resolution is gained. Confronted with the problem of data protection, a loss of details will be considered under certain conditions. Am locus typicus, dem Lorenzberg, sind sie allerdings lediglich als zwei kleine Terrassenreste erhalten.
Absolute Altersdaten liegen aus beiden Lorenzbergstufen bisher nicht vor. Lechlauf umvor den Flusskorrekturen des Jahrhunderts auf Basis der Urkatasteraufnahmen Bayerns. Absolute Altersdaten liegen aus beiden Seestallstufen bisher nicht vor. Unterhalb der Staustufe Kaufering bilden diese Auenterrassen dann einen bis an den Nordrand des Untersuchungsgebietes reichenden, 15 km langen und den Lech in durchschnittlich m Breite beiderseits begleitenden Streifen Abb.
In ihrem Relief spiegelt sich das junge Alter einer teilweise noch im Jahrhundert aktiv gestalteten und von zahlreichen Einzelarmen durchzogenen Flusslandschaft wieder Abb. Geologische Karte von Bayern 1: Ein besonderer Dank geht dabei an Dr. Die jungglazialen Schotterfluren im Umkreis der deutschen Alpen. Bodenchronosequenzen aus Lockersedimenten der Lechterrassen. The morphological features in the study area were surveyed by field mapping and high resolution Digital Elevation Models.
The deposits of both rivers were examined in numerous outcrops and dated using radiocarbon and luminescence measurements. Also archaeological data and historical maps were taken into account. The Atlantic period is not represented by river channel deposits in the study area. In contrast, Subboreal and Subalantic gravel deposits morphologically dominate the lower Lech valley and the Danube valley downstream of the confluence.
Up to six Subatlantic terraces accompany the recent courses of Lech and Danube.
Gematrie mit der deutschen Sprache
The distribution and morphological appearance of the Late Subatlantic terraces at the Danube upstream of the confluence refer to a meandering river, whereas the morphology of the youngest Lech terraces predominantly relates to an anabranching river.
Downstream of the Lech — Danube confluence the Subatlantic terrace morphology is a transitional one between a meandering and an anabranching depositional setting. Atlantische Flussbettablagerungen sind im Untersuchungsgebiet nicht zu finden. As a result, the knowledge of Late Pleistocene and Holocene valley development, and morphological and geological architecture of the fluvial deposits is still fragmentary.