José Martí | Cuban patriot | ar-cad.info
José Martí, in the eastern-most province of Santiago (where Martí died .. In a personal letter to Khrushchev dated 27 October , Castro. Main · Videos; El viento en los sauces online dating divorce dating issues with teens · jose marti biografia resumida yahoo dating · parrafo inductivo yahoo. Apr 2, A gifted writer and poet, Jose Marti spent most of his life fighting for Cuba independence. Birth Date: January 28, Sometimes called the Apostle of the Cuban Revolution, José Martí was born in Havana in
To him, it was unnatural that Cuba was controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.
In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24,he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' Warwhich, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain had not ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well.
The establishment of the patria fatherland with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important political achievement of his life. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating.
From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, criticized the Home Rule Autonomista Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology.
Translated, it reads "The Fatherland is an altar, not a stepping stone. The United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis it was experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain.
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Here [he] was surprised Different races were being discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by 'professional politicians'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". Marti applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had.
In Maywhile attending political meetings he heard "the call for revolution — and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Marti could not believe that revolution was advocated and was amazed that this could happen because this "could have led to its own destruction".
Marti also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women here [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Marti, free speech was essential if any nation was to be civilized and he expressed his "profund admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of American citizens".
The former was seen as "hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty". He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics.
In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up an extensive correspondence his letters are included in the collection of his complete workshe wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro  The Golden Age, His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works.
The rest an enormous amount was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in Inalso in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Over the course of his journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Diablo Cojuelo The Limping Devil and La Patria Libre The Free Fatherlandboth of which he helped to found in in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba.
Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects relating to Spanish America about which Marti studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes".
We shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any. We write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world".
I cultivate a white rose In July as in January For the sincere friend Who gives me his hand frankly And for the cruel person who tears out the heart with which I live, I cultivate neither nettles nor thorns: Within the poem, he talks about how regardless of the person, whether kind or cruel he cultivates a white rose, meaning that he remains peaceful.
This coincides with his ideology about establishing unity amongst the people, more so those of Cuba, through a common identity, with no regards to ethnic and racial differences. The kindness of one person should be shared with all people, regardless of personal conflict. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity.
His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments". More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters.
For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate.
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This is his style to teach delightfully. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States.
He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from until he returned to Cuba in He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appletonand did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement.
Castro was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Having served less than two years, however, he was released in May thanks to a general amnesty from a confident Batista. He went into exile in Mexico on July 7. Some historians claim that although Castro's group took part in the Moncada Barracks attack, Castro himself was not involved in the fighting.
They claim that Castro and his inner circle hid at a nearby location, away from the bloodshed. These claims, however, are highly disputed. It has also been claimed that Castro's unit targeted soldiers who were sleeping or incapacitated in the barracks' infirmary. This claim has been countered as an attempt by Castro's enemies to discredit him. Everyone had instructions, first of all, to be humane in the struggle From the beginning we took numerous prisoners - nearly twenty Those soldiers testified before the court and without exception they all acknowledged that we treated them with absolute respect In line with this, I want to give my heartfelt thanks to the prosecutor for one thing in the trial of my comrades: Life as a guerrilla Once in Mexico, Castro reunited with other exiles and founded the 26th of July Movement.
Medical doctor Ernesto "Che" Guevara joined the group in Mexico. On November 26, they returned to Cuba, sailing from Tuxpan to Cuba on the ft pleasure yacht Granma. Two "traitors" are mentioned before the yacht sailed Evaristo Venereo and Rafael del Pino the del Pino who had been with Castro in the Bogotazo, The expeditionaries landed in Los Cayuelos near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2, They missed their scheduled arrival by two days.
Of the 80 remaining 21 were captured and executed, 22 were held prisoner; of the remaining 37 about 20 escaped 7 rejoined the rebels and some reached the high mountains Cuban web sources e. Some are now said to have been members of covert branch of the communist party or "agrarian reformers". In mid Castro gave Che Guevara command of a second column. Castro's colorful command of the English enabled him to appeal directly to a US audience. He then became viewed as a revolutionary leader in the United States.Tampa: Untold Stories with E.J. Salcines - Jose Marti
Despite being heavily outnumbered, Castro's forces scored a series of victories, in part aided by desertion from Batista's army. Whilst subsequent pro-Castro Cuban sources emphasize Castro and his group's role in these battles, other groups and leaders were involved, such as escopeteros poorly-armed irregulars.
During the Battle of Las Mercedes, Castro's small army came close to defeat but he managed to pull his troops out by opening up negotiations with General Cantillo while secretly pulling his soliders out of the trap.
Here they were now supported by Huber Matos, Raul Castro and others to the eastern most part of the province. On the plains Castro's forces first surrounded Guisa and drove out their enemies, and proceeded to take most of the towns that were taken by Calixto Garcia in the Cuban War of Independence.
In DecemberGuevara and Cienfuegos' columns joined with other anti-Batista forces already in the central mountains, occupied several towns and began preperations for an attack on Santa Clara, Cuba, the capital of the Las Villas province.
Guevara's column derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay.
Defeated on all sides, Batista's forces crumbled. The provincial capital was captured after less than a day of fighting on December 31, On December 28, Castro met semi-secretly with Batista General Eulogio Cantillo who arrived at Castro's headquarters in a helicopter. Initially the United States was quick to recognize the new government.
Sometime during this period Castro spoke for his first time to members of the Council of Foreign Relations. Castro's economic policies had caused some concerns in Washington that Castro was a Communist with an allegiance to the Soviet Union.
Supposedly, President Dwight D.
Eisenhower snubbed Castro, giving the excuse that he was playing golf, and left Nixon to speak to him. Compensation for the expropriated properties was based on their declared property tax value, which, for many years, the same companies had managed to keep artificially low.
The revolutionary government consolidated control of the nation by nationalizing industry, expropriating property owned by Cubans and non-Cubans alike, collectivizing agriculture, and enacting policies which it claimed would benefit the population.
These policies alienated many former supporters of the revolution among the Cuban middle and upper-classes, who made up roughly half of the Cuban population. When the US-owned refineries in Cuba refused to process the oil, they were expropriated, and the United States broke off diplomatic relations with the Castro government soon afterward. To the concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union.
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A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from them. Bay of Pigs On April 15,the day after Castro described his revolution as socialist, four Cuban airfields were bombed by As bearing false Cuban markings. These bombing runs were the beginning stages of the Bay of Pigs invasion. The United States staged an unsuccessful attack on Cuba on 17 April Under the leadership of Stephen Penney, the CIA assumed that the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro; the operation itself was expected by Castro, however, and in anticipation the government rounded up perhapsLynch reportsanti-Castro Cubans -at least 20, in Havana alone Priestland,executed some and imprisoned the others under threat of death should the invasion succeed.
President Kennedy was influenced by some State Department officials including Roy Rubottom and especially his assistant William Weiland who had been involved in Castro related matters since the Bogotazo and in Cuban matters as assistant to Sumner Welles. Kennedy withdrew support for the invasion at the last minute, by canceling several bombing sorties that could have crippled the entire Cuban Air Force. The cancellation also prevented US Marines waiting off the coast from landing in support of the Cuban exiles.
After three days of ferocious fighting in which about invaders and perhaps 2, militia, perhaps according to Lynch, more died most trapped in buses on the causewaysthe rest of the invaders were captured.
At least nine invaders were formally executed in connection with this action, however, a number died of suffocation in an unventilated truck trailer, while Castro attributed the defeat of the invasion to his leadership. In a nationally broadcast speech onCastro declared that he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism.
On February 7,the US imposed an embargo against Cuba, which included a general travel ban for American tourists. October Crisis Main article: Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a US invasion.
It was agreed to deploy Soviet R MRBMs on Cuban soil; however, American Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance discovered the construction of the missile installations on 15 October before the weapons had actually been deployed.
The US government viewed the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons 90 miles south of Key West as an aggressive act and a threat to US security. As a result, the US publicly announced its discovery on 22 Octoberand implemented a quarantine around Cuba that would actively intercept and search any vessels heading for the island.
In a personal letter to Khrushchev dated 27 OctoberCastro urged Khrushchev to launch a nuclear first strike against the United States if Cuba were invaded, but Khrushchev rejected any first strike response pdf. Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States. Kennedy publicly announced that the USSR had begun to deploy medium and intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba, approximately km 90 mi from Florida.
Moreover, the president said, by their doing so the Soviets had demonstrated that they had for many months been lying about their intentions in that island nation.
Kennedy then stated that the United States was prepared to not only blockade Cuba but to ultimately do whatever might be necessary to remove the missiles. Finally, he warned, a Soviet attack on any target in the United States or Latin America would result in what he called "a full retaliatory response on the Soviet Union. By October 27, the superpowers seemed near to war. As the Soviet missile sites reached completion, the American pilot of a U-2 spy plane was shot down over Cuba and the pilot killed.
Also during that time, President Kennedy orderedcombat-ready troops deployed to the southeastern United States to prepare to attack Cuba.
On October 28, however, just before 9: Cuban leader Fidel Castro was outraged at what he felt was a Soviet betrayal, but he reluctantly allowed the missiles to be withdrawn. The stark reality of the Cuban Missile Crisis only became clear decades later, the result of a joint U. As a result of these conferences and continuing research, it is now clear that the key sources of the crisis were the enormous, mutual misperceptions and misunderstandings between Washington and Moscow and Havana.
The Soviets, for example, felt that they had to deploy the missiles to Cuba because they believed incorrectly, but understandably, following the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion of April that a massive U.
On the other hand, the United States dismissed growing signs of the possibility of a Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba because the Soviets had never before positioned such weapons outside the Soviet Union, and because it was so obvious to the United States, though not to the Soviets that such a move would be totally unacceptable in Washington.
In addition, the Soviets felt sure though the Cubans tried several times to persuade them that they were wrong that the missiles could be introduced into Cuba secretly, via a clandestine operation supplemented by a systematic attempt to deceive the United States. Thus the danger of the confrontation in was more severe than U.
At the time, the U. Furthermore, by the last weekend of OctoberCastro had concluded that a U. This led him to request of Khrushchev, in a cable sent on October 27, that in the event of an invasion, the Soviet leader launch an all-out nuclear strike against the United States. Cuba would thus be a martyr for the socialist cause. Also by October 27, when the majority of President Kennedy's military and civilian advisors were advocating an attack on Cuba, the Soviets had already delivered nuclear warheads to that country.
The CIA believed at the time that there were no warheads on the island. During the last few days of the crisis, the Soviet field commander ordered the warheads for the short-range, tactical weapons moved out of storage and closer to their launchers. He did so without prior approval from Moscow, and he likely would have ordered their use in the event of a U.
A further fact uncovered is that each Soviet submarine escorting ships bound for Cuba carried one nuclear-tipped torpedo, which could be used without consultation with Moscow. One such submarine, certain that it was under attack from U. Thus the Cuban Missile Crisis Project came to the conclusion that by the last weekend of Octoberall the pieces were in place for Armageddon to occur.
SomeCuban troops and more than 40, Soviet troops armed with dozens of tactical nuclear weapons would have met a U. Historians speculate that such an action would very likely have ended in nuclear catastrophe. In the end, President Kennedy rejected military advice for a full-scale surprise attack on Cuba and instead delivered the public ultimatum to the USSR on October 22, declaring the quarantine and demanding the withdrawal of all offensive missiles.
After nearly a week of unprecedented tension, the Khrushchev government yielded. Kennedy, in return, agreed to refrain from attempting an overthrow of Castro's government. Despite this concession, all sides regarded the outcome as a substantial victory for the United States, and Kennedy won a reputation as a formidable international statesman. The USSR, for its part, began a long-term effort to strengthen its military capability, but in the immediate future both nations sought to relax hostilities.
Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid.
Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors. The KGB kept in close touch with Havana, and Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, and the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force.
InGuevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against the country's government. On 23 August Castro made a public gesture to the Soviet Union that reaffirmed their support in him. Two days after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring, Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion. Castro warned the Cuban people about the Czechoslovakian 'counter-revolutionaries', who "were moving Czechoslovakia towards capitalism and into the arms of imperialists".
He called the leaders of the rebellion "the agents of West Germany and fascist reactionary rabble. Salvador Allende and Fidel Castro Infollowing the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba, despite a previously established Organization of American States convention that no nation in the Western Hemisphere would do so the only exception being Mexico, which had refused to adopt that conventionCuban President Fidel Castro took a month-long visit to Chile.
The visit, in which Castro participated actively in the internal politics of the country, holding massive rallies and giving public advice to Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that "The Chilean Way to Socialism" was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba. On this, Nelson Mandela has remarked "Cuban internationalists have done so much for African independence, freedom, and justice.
In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in An estimated 14, Cubans were killed in Fidel's revolutionary adventures abroad, such as his dispatch of 50, soldiers to Angola in the s to help defend the Soviet-backed regime. When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba inthe close relationship between Moscow and Havana was strained by Gorbachev's implementation of economic reforms.
According to Castro, "the sun vanished from the horizon when the Soviet Union collapsed.